Application of cyclodextrin in antiviral drugs and vaccines
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Application of cyclodextrin in antiviral drugs and vaccines

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Recently, Professor El-Saleh from the State of Nevada, USA, published a paper discussing the various roles of cyclodextrin derivatives (CDs) in antiviral vaccines and antiviral therapeutics. The first part describes the most commonly studied application of cyclodextrin-the solubilization and stabilization of antiviral drugs; some examples also involve its ability to mask odors. The second part of the review describes the role of cyclodextrins in the development and stabilization of antiviral vaccines, where they are used as adjuvants and cryogens. In addition, cyclodextrin-based polymers are currently under development as mRNA delivery systems. Finally, the use of cyclodextrin as a drug to explore the active ingredients for the treatment of viral infections. This new application area is still taking the first step. However, the encouraging results of using cyclodextrin as a drug to treat other diseases are encouraging. We can learn that the recently approved Janssen vaccine (ad26.cov2.s) contains HPβCD as a cryopreservation agent in the preparation, that is, to avoid cold-induced surface damage of virus particles.

HPBCD hydroxypropyl betadex,SBECD,MBCD

A schematic diagram of the interaction between adenovirus particles (orange) and HPβCD molecules (blue) in the ad26.cov2s vaccine. Cyclodextrin molecules are used in large quantities and it is claimed that they can be used as cryopreservants to help stabilize the surface of the virus during the freeze-drying step of vaccine preparation.

Among human vaccines, hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin HPβCD is the best choice as an adjuvant because it has been approved by regulatory agencies and has excellent safety. In addition, HPβCD can induce lymphocyte proliferation, especially type 2 T helper cells (Th2). These cells, also known as CD4 + cells, are an important part of the vaccine's immune effect and help maintain a longer immune response. HPβCD has more advantages than aluminum salt, which is currently the most commonly used adjuvant. Unlike aluminum, HPβCD hardly induces the production of immunoglobulin E (IgE), thereby reducing the risk of vaccine sensitization.

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